What is GMP in IPO: Understanding Grey Market Premium (GMP) in IPOs

What is GMP in IPO: Understand what GMP is, how it impacts IPO listings, and the challenges investors should be aware of.

The Indian financial market is a dynamic and ever-evolving landscape, offering numerous opportunities for investors to grow their wealth. One such avenue for investment is Initial Public Offerings (IPOs), which allow companies to raise capital by offering their shares to the public for the first time. While IPOs can be lucrative, they come with their own set of complexities, one of which is the concept of Grey Market Premium (GMP). In this comprehensive blog, we will delve deep into What is GMP in IPO is all about, its significance, how it is calculated, and its impact on IPO listings.

What is GMP in IPO?

Grey Market Premium, commonly known as GMP, is a term frequently used in the context of IPOs. It represents the difference between the price at which IPO shares are traded in the grey market and the issue price set by the company. The grey market, in this context, refers to the unofficial or secondary market where shares of an IPO are bought and sold before they are officially listed on stock exchanges like NSE and BSE.

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Benefits and risks of IPO investing: Opportunities for growth, but also potential for volatility and uncertainty.

Significance of GMP

The Grey Market Premium serves as a critical indicator of investor sentiment and interest in an IPO. A higher GMP generally indicates strong demand for the company’s shares, while a lower or negative GMP may suggest a lack of enthusiasm among investors. Let’s take a closer look at the significance of GMP in IPOs:

  1. Investor Sentiment: GMP reflects the overall sentiment of investors towards an upcoming IPO. If the GMP is high, it suggests that investors are willing to pay a premium over the issue price, indicating strong demand.
  2. Price Discovery: It aids in price discovery for IPO shares before they are officially listed on stock exchanges. Investors can gauge the potential listing price of shares by observing the GMP.
  3. Investment Decision: GMP can be a crucial factor for retail investors when deciding whether to participate in an IPO. A positive GMP might encourage investors to subscribe to the offering, hoping for potential gains upon listing.
  4. Company Valuation: Companies can use GMP as a measure to evaluate the perceived value of their shares in the market. A higher GMP may indicate that the IPO price was set conservatively, potentially leaving room for post-listing appreciation.

How is GMP Calculated?

Calculating Grey Market Premium involves monitoring the trading activity of IPO shares in the unofficial grey market. Here’s a simplified way to understand how GMP is calculated:

GMP = Grey Market Price – IPO Issue Price

  • Grey Market Price (GMP): This is the price at which IPO shares are trading in the grey market, where unofficial trades take place.
  • IPO Issue Price: This is the price at which the company offers its shares to the public through the IPO. See GMP with an Example.

The GMP can be positive, negative, or zero, depending on whether IPO shares are trading above, below, or at par with the issue price.

Impact of GMP on IPO Listings

The Grey Market Premium can have several implications for the IPO listing process and subsequent trading:

  1. Pricing Strategy: Companies often consider GMP when setting the IPO price. If the GMP is significantly higher than the issue price, it may prompt the company to revise the issue price upward to capture the potential market value.
  2. Demand and Oversubscription: A high GMP can lead to oversubscription of the IPO. Investors rush to apply for shares, hoping for quick profits upon listing.
  3. Listing Day Performance: A strong GMP can indicate a positive listing day performance, as there is already a premium built into the IPO shares.
  4. Volatility: IPOs with high GMPs can experience higher price volatility on listing day, as investors may rush to buy or sell shares, driven by the premium.
  5. Investor Perception: A significant difference between GMP and issue price can affect investor perception. If GMP is much higher than the issue price, it may create the impression that the IPO was underpriced.

Challenges and Risks Associated with GMP

While Grey Market Premium can be a valuable indicator, it’s essential to be aware of the challenges and risks associated with it:

  1. Unofficial Nature: GMP is derived from unofficial, over-the-counter market trades, which can lack transparency and regulatory oversight.
  2. Fluctuations: GMP can change rapidly as market sentiment shifts, making it challenging to rely solely on this indicator for investment decisions.
  3. Inaccuracy: The GMP may not always accurately predict the actual listing performance of an IPO. Market dynamics can change after listing, affecting share prices.
  4. IPO Fundamentals: Investors should not solely base their investment decisions on GMP. Conducting thorough due diligence on the company’s fundamentals, financials, and industry outlook is crucial.
  5. Legal Implications: Participating in the grey market can involve legal and regulatory risks, as it operates outside the official stock exchanges.


Grey Market Premium (GMP) in IPOs provides valuable insights into investor sentiment, pricing expectations, and potential listing day performance. While it can be a useful tool for both companies and investors, it’s essential to approach GMP with caution and not rely solely on it for investment decisions. Conducting thorough research and considering other factors, including the company’s fundamentals, industry outlook, and market conditions, is crucial for making informed investment choices in the dynamic world of IPOs.

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Disclaimer: The information provided on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be construed as financial or investment advice. Users are advised to do their own research and consult a qualified financial advisor before making any investment decisions.
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